When I look at the sixth graders gathered together for our reading mini lesson each day in Reading Workshop, I see a wide range of abilities, interest and readiness for research. Genius Hour is one way I try to engage my students in “their” work instead of mine.
We have Essential Outcomes for nonfiction reading which include learning how to track central ideas and supporting details. Throughout our second nonfiction of the year, my sixth graders complete their Genius Hour research and create something to teach us about what they have learned.
A Starting Point research question document is create so that students have research at appropriate levels. Some students may ask basic questions about their topics and others, who are ready, can ask more sophisticated questions to guide their work. I have students use this Question Helper, based on Dr. Maureen Neihart’s work with helping gifted learners develop rigorous inquiry topics. My students read about their topic during reading workshop and create podcasts to share the central ideas and supporting details they’ve learned each week with their loyal audience on their KidBlog. Here are some of our current podcasts: AM Workshop and PM Workshop. We would love it if you listened to one or more and added a comment!
It is possible for a classroom teacher to use Genius Hour with an individual with gifted needs or even a small group in his or her grade level. The Genius Hour project can be done when the rest of the class is working on grade level material. Since I have my whole class do Genius Hour, I make sure I conference with my gifted students about the rigor in their work and make sure they are digging deep and not just reporting what they already know.
I have a page on my classroom website for Genius Hour, which contains directions, tips, rubrics and podcast information. My students publish their work on a Genius Hour Google Site. I created a Site template for their use with all of the slides and rubrics preloaded on the pages for their reference.
Summer, a time that excites almost every student, is just around the corner. The potential opportunity to spend hours immersed in inquiry about a passion topic or multiple topics magically opens up. For some students this is their time. A chance to learn about what they want to learn in the way that makes sense to them. Books, camps, time to explore outdoors or conduct experiments are available to fill the time off of school. Authentic learning occurs.
The keys to making time off of school successful could be easier than you think. Let your child guide the path. Start by finding out what interests your child. What questions are rolling around in her head that just make her wonder? Then head to the library or internet to delve into finding those answers. If the answers will be found in doing or experimenting say yes to whatever you can. Businesses and organizations that connect with the inquiry are often excited to help young learners learn—if you ask. Contact them and ask. If they aren’t able to help they may be able to direct you to another business or organization that can.
Don’t worry about reading levels. If your child wants to check out a book from the library that seems too hard, let it happen. The worst thing that will happen is that the book won’t get read. Of course you want to check on the appropriateness of the content.
Camps abound. An internet search may help you locate one that meets your child’s needs. Some of these camps can be a bit expensive. Scholarships are often available. Don’t be afraid to ask. If the camp doesn’t offer them the people holding the camp often know of other organizations that support student summer learning scholarships.
Make the most of this wonderful time to inquire. Spend time with your child engaged in conversations full of questions. Don’t let all of the questions come from your child. Share what you are wondering about. The circle of inquiry can start anywhere…and go anywhere. I wonder…I discover…I think…I saw…I tried…
Enjoy this wonderful time and soar with your child!
We know that many of our advanced learners breeze through school with no struggle. They get straight A’s (or an occasional A-) and enjoy their success. They may actually be driven by their success. They receive accolades for their good grades. They thrive on this positive attention and verbal praise. They may even get paid for getting good grades. This creates a situation where students feel they need to get good grades in order to feel valued and respected--even loved. The result is the possibility that they only accept tasks that are easy; of only doing things that they already know how to do. Therefore, success is guaranteed even though it takes little effort. If a student is praised only for the product--not the process, their self worth becomes dependent on this approval from others and not from within.
True happiness comes from a feeling of pride. Pride is earned through hard work. Hard work means accepting a difficult task, persevering through the task to a result that accomplishes a goal. Sometimes this requires a bit of sideline coaching or facilitation but the work needs to be accomplished by the student alone in order to reach the level of self-satisfaction for a job done well. Teach them task analysis; failure analysis; to discover multiple pathways to reach the same goal. Teach them acceptance of failure as a means to accomplishment.
The gift we can give our children and our students that will last through every difficult situation that life throws at them is the gift of perseverance. We all need to develop our own a bag of tools to tackle challenges. We also need the work ethic to take the time necessary to solve these problems. These key components to success are realized only by being presented with appropriate challenges throughout our lives. Do you know anyone who is addicted to a game? Whatever the game is, it presents an appropriate challenge--that is one that can be accomplished through a reasonable amount of time and effort. The result? Pride of accomplishment and better yet, the desire to continue to accept more challenges.
Weinbrenner1, a guru in the field of gifted education, suggests that parents and teachers should consider the following:
Our future needs our gifted youth. They are the ones who will solve future problems. Our goal should be to help them advance with the skill set necessary to grow, learn, communicate and contribute with confidence.
Whether it’s Baby Einstein for infants to violin lessons in kindergarten, many parents are eager to give their kids a head start with a lifestyle that equates with success. Sure, as parents of high achieving kids we might place too much pressure, overschedule with extracurricular activities, and demand high scores on standardized tests. But, why can't kids just be kids anymore? Some of us are immune to the competitiveness that seems to have gripped every playground. Today, foreign languages are the new ABC's, kindergarten is the new second grade. Somehow, despite the “my kid is a genius” craze, U.S. students are struggling to keep up with their international peers. American students lag behind while countries like Finland, Singapore and South Korea raise the next generation of math and science whizzes, the very skills our digitally driven culture boasts about. So, as parents, what can we do to support our gifted kids?
Talk, talk, talk
Ask your kid open-ended questions, like “What would happen if all the animals on Earth disappeared?” Such questions help a child reflect on what they think and are reassured their opinion matters. Don't worry if your child is too young to understand. Likewise, don't be afraid to use relatively sophisticated words. They may not understand them, but have the ability to figure it out if the words are used multiple times in different contexts. As an elementary teacher and mom of a high-achieving middle schooler, I have always conversed with my daughter about every topic you can imagine. Since she was 2 years old, I would talk about lessons I was planning for my students. Whether it was on the solar system, the water cycle, civil rights movement, or Hispanic heritage month—I made it a priority to expose her with a variety of topics in many domains. Today, she is a well-rounded conversationalist.
Read, read, read
Researchers agree that access to books and one-on-one reading time is a predictor of school success. Why? Reading stimulates the brain to make connections and builds background knowledge about the world. Reading is the foundation of all learning and will enable a child to absorb and apply content from all areas, including math and science. What’s more, modeling good reading habits at home may give your child an advantage. If your child observes the family reading for enjoyment that attitude will more likely be adopted. At home, invite your child to cozy up and read anything together. Put books out everywhere—on coffee tables in the living room, on bookshelves in the bedroom, and sure, even in baskets in the bathroom. Lastly, share what you're reading with your child, and ask them what new book they checked out at the school library. This will not only spark conversation, but build vocabulary and comprehension.
Give specific praise
As teachers and parents, we are preoccupied in making kids feel good that we pay less attention to the time it takes for kids to actually become great. It's hard to accept failure if you're constantly told you're the best. When gifted kids go to school and don’t solve a problem correctly, they may be too hard on themselves or blame others for their failure. Therefore, knowing how to respond is important. Children who are praised for solving a problem tend to be more motivated in school than children who are told they're just smart. The latter, ironically, often become frustrated when something isn’t that easy. So instead of giving broad praise such as, “You're the smartest kid in the school!”, give kudos for specific accomplishments such as, “I'm proud of how you found a different way to solve that word problem”. Likewise, if they didn’t achieve a goal or get the right answer simply smile and encourage them by saying, “You're almost there. Don’t give up.”
Children are naturally very curious. Unfortunately, some kids may lose that sense of curiosity as they get older. What can we do at home to prolong curiosity? Keep them excited by targeting what interests them. Ask questions about what they're interested in and you will have initiated a love of learning that may pay off in their future. Thereafter, your child will ask more questions and continue to delve in that curiosity. Also, take time to share what you're excited about too. Check out a new museum or watch an interesting documentary together, and tell your child what you liked about it and why.
Seize teachable moments
You can help your child develop superior school skills throughout the day. Researchers conclude that education does not only happen in school. Experiences outside of the school are just as valuable. For example, if you drive under a thunderstorm. Instead of saying “Hey, it’s a storm!” ask a question: “How do you think thunder is formed?” Encouraging observation of details will help your child do the same in school. Another example, a trip to the store can be a chance to build vocabulary, math skills and managing money. Tell a 2-year-old the names of fruits as you bag them. Ask a 3-year-old to find four bags of frozen broccoli. Have a 5-year-old write down which cereal she wants. Older kids can compare prices and sizes, and sort fruits and vegetables.
In conclusion, these tips will benefit all children, whether your child is gifted or not. One of the best predictors of future success is for parents to be involved and engaged in their children’s education, at home and in school.
WATG is looking to fill a few positions on the current board. Having a diverse board, comprised of a mix of educators, parents and community members that represent the state of Wisconsin is a key objective we are committed to meeting.
What does the WATG board do?
Good question! You can find the current strategic goals on our webpage www.watg.org under the About tab→ Mission and Goals. We work as a team to impact positive changes on behalf of this special population of students.
What is the time commitment for a board member?
The WATG board is a volunteer, working board, dedicated to advocating for and educating about the needs of gifted in Wisconsin. As a full board we meet once a month. Most meetings are virtual and last about 90 minutes. Three times a year we meet face to face for a full day. Face to face meetings typically take place the Saturday after our fall conference, once in the spring and once in early summer. These face to face extended worktimes help us dive deeply into the work that needs to be completed.
Each board member is asked to serve on one or more committee. These committees meet in addition to the monthly meetings, as needed. Between meetings board members are self-directed in completing action commitments. There are always opportunities to get involved! A minimum time expectation of a board member is 3 additional hours per month. The average board member spends approximately 5-6 hours per month on WATG work.
Are all board members education professionals?
Not at all. The board is committed to bringing together and hearing the voices of all stakeholders. Understanding varied viewpoints is crucial to making the best decisions and building a solid system to meet the needs of gifted individuals in Wisconsin. Diversity matters.
How do I apply to be a board member?
Applications can be found on our webpage at www.watg.org under the More tab →Join the Board. Once your completed application is received, someone from WATG will contact to you answer any questions you have and get to know you a bit. Your application will then be shared with the board at the next monthly meeting. Board terms are usually voted in on Friday, at the annual conference and board terms then begin. However, when necessary to fill a vacant spot, sometimes board membership will begin mid-year. A board member may serve seven consecutive one year terms before being required to take a two year leave. This allows for the voice of new members.
Don’t think board membership is for you but you want to be involved?
Board membership comes with a commitment of time and work. For one reason or another you a board position may not be the fit for you but you want to help out with a specific work group or project. We have an option for you! Just fill out your contact information and select the project you are interested in working on. A committee member will contact you and get you involved. –Many hands makes light work.
I’m looking forward to working with you!
I am an addict. I am not recovering. In fact, I hope to never give up my addiction. Fortunately, mine is a healthy kind of addiction known as exercise. My late, great father used to encourage me to take a break from undergraduate studies to go for a walk, do jumping jacks, ride my bike or go snowshoeing. “I don’t have time for that!”, I’d exclaim as I frantically crammed for an upcoming exam or smeared white out onto a term paper. Turns out, many, many years later I can finally agree that, cough, Dr. Hayes was, ahem, right.
There are myriad reasons to exercise including but not limited to the prevention of depression and disease, vanity and weight control. Another compelling reason applies to both school-age youth and those of us who are becoming a bit more long in the tooth: exercise changes the brain in ways that may protect memory and thinking skills, warding off dementia and brain fog and promoting long-term memory recall. A Canadian study revealed that regular aerobic exercise that raises the heart rate and activates sweat glands appears to boost the size of the hippocampus, the area of the human brain responsible for learning and verbal memory.
Additionally, exercise stimulates brain plasticity by stimulating growth of new connections between cells in a wide array of important cortical areas of the brain. UCLA researchers recently discovered that exercise increased growth factors in the brain—making it easier for the brain to grow new neuronal connections while learning takes place.
Exercise helps memory and thinking through both direct and indirect means. The benefits of exercise come directly from its ability to reduce insulin resistance, reduce inflammation, and stimulate the release of growth factors—chemicals in the brain that affect the health of brain cells, the growth of new blood vessels in the brain, and even the abundance and survival of new brain cells.
Indirectly, exercise improves mood and sleep, and reduces stress and anxiety. Problems in these areas frequently cause or contribute to cognitive impairment.
Many studies have suggested that the parts of the brain that control thinking and memory (the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal cortex) have greater volume in people who exercise versus people who don’t. “Even more exciting is the finding that engaging in a program of regular exercise of moderate intensity over six months or a year is associated with an increase in the volume of selected brain regions,” says Dr. Scott McGinnis, a neurologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and an instructor in neurology at Harvard Medical School.
It’s never too late to start reaping the benefits of exercise, both physically and mentally. As the Nike ad tells us: Just Do It. Go for a brisk, 20 minute walk. Play “Just Dance” with your family. Challenge someone to a game of one on one in the driveway after dinner. Dance around the kitchen while making meals or during clean-up. Even raking leaves, and all too soon, shoveling snow in Wisconsin.
“Exercise is the single best thing you can do for your brain in terms of mood, memory and learning.” ~ John Ratey, M.D.
Richard M. Cash, Ed.D.
Educator, Author and Consultant
nRich Educational Consulting, Inc.
Most people who know me would say that I’m “bubbly” or “full of energy.” When I was in school, I was always talking to my neighbor, easily distracted, and generally into everything other than what I was told to do. In my school years, we didn’t have terms such as ADD (attention deficit disorder) or ADHD (attention deficit hyperactive disorder). I was just labeled “chatty” or “naughty.”
Now we know more about the issues of ADD and ADHD and the neurological confusion that can go on in kids’ brains. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the term ADHD is replacing the term ADD entirely. Those with ADHD typically have a hard time staying focused, may have hyperactive tendencies to be in constant or almost constant motion, and can appear to be impulsive. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of children being diagnosed with ADHD has increased steadily over time (and may vary based on the different measures applied). According to the DSM-5, upwards of 5 percent of all children live with ADHD. However, those rates may be higher in different communities.
Numerous strategies can be helpful when working with students with ADHD, such as providing:
Dr. Sydney Zentall, a leading researcher in the field of ADHD at Purdue University, suggests that in some cases students may not clinically have ADHD but simply be under-stimulated. She states that these students may require higher degrees of stimulation and engagement than the average student. Additionally, Matt Fugate, Marcia Gentry, and Zentall found that while some gifted students diagnosed with ADHD possessed poorer work habits, these students exhibited greater levels of creativity than gifted students without ADHD.
While ADHD carries with it some dramatic effects on learning and relationship building, there may be some positive outcomes for students who are diagnosed or exhibit traits. Based on the research cited above, here are some suggestions for working with your gifted ADHD students:
However, students with ADHD may be sending us a message regarding their needs for greater stimulation and desires to be more self-expressive in their learning. These traits are what will make them successful in life. We need to nurture students’ creative sides, allow for their unique ways of doing, and encourage them to develop their talents.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition: DSM-5. American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013.
Fugate, C. M., S. S. Zentall, and M. Gentry. “Creativity and Working Memory in Gifted Students With and Without Characteristics of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Lifting the Mask.” Gifted Child Quarterly 57, no. 1 (2013): 234–246.
Zentall, S. S. “Research on the Educational Implications of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Exceptional Children 60, no. 2 (1993): 143–153.
Portions of this article originated in a blog post that appeared on www.freespiritpublishingblog.com. Copyright © 2017 by Free Spirit Publishing. Used with permission. All rights reserved.
Kirsten Reitan, WATG Board, Guest Blogger
One of my principals attached a really good article from KQED Mind/Shift in his staff newsletter. Of course, I paid attention as I am a public radio junkie and remembered that KQED was the station I listened to when we lived in Seattle. Its title was “20 Tips to help De-escalate Interactions with Anxious or Defiant Students.”
Those of us who work in the school systems know that our students seem more anxious than ever. Parents are stressed and our world feels very chaotic. A National Institute of Health study found that about 25 percent of children between 13 and 18 years old have been diagnosed with some kind of anxiety disorder. And those are just the kids who have been diagnosed. Additionally, between eight and 15 percent of school-aged children have some sort of learning disability, a squishy measure as there is not a standard definition of learning disabilities.
People’s behaviors - and especially children’s behaviors - are forms of communication. So when kids act out, there are almost always underlying causes. The trick is to respond appropriately in a classroom filled with children who have concerns of their own. Jessica Minahan, a certified behavior analyst, special ed teacher, and author of The Behavior Code: A Practical Guide to Understanding and Teaching the Most Challenging Students, says that typical behavior strategies don’t really work for kids who are responding out of anxiety. When we are anxious, working memory doesn’t work and it is very hard to recall important information. “Anxiety isn’t about ability, it’s about interference.”
Our district uses PBIS (Positive Behavior Intervention and Support) as its main behavior management system. However, this system of rewards and consequences doesn't always work real well with anxious students. Common response to negative attention seeking is to ignore the student. But if the child has anxiety, ignoring them raises their level of tension.
Schwartz, K. (n.d.). 20 Tips to Help De-escalate Interactions With Anxious or Defiant Students. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2016/04/21/20-tips-to-help-de-escalate-interactions-with-anxious-or-defiant-students/
On August 1, 2017, I had the privilege of being a presenter at a teacher’s workshop in Chennai, India organized by Rotary Club of Guindy, India. My main goal for this workshop was to explain the procedures that teachers in the United States follow to identify students who are gifted in various fields. I explained the identification process, monthly assessments, and progress monitoring that we are required to do during the school year. It was an eye opening experience for me to learn that educators around the world are not as fortunate as the educators in the US because they don’t have the proper tools or protocols in place to meet the needs of all of their students, especially their gifted students.
While India is trying to set up centers of higher learning in the form of colleges, institutes and international schools, it is also privy to the poor quality of primary and secondary education, out of date teaching mechanisms and methodologies and poor infrastructure. According to a deputy Director of Delhi University, educational policies in India are more top down in nature rather than bottom up. Therefore, most students fail to realize their true potential in their school years and have livelihoods that are less productive and satisfying. Talented students do not find appropriate guidance and mentorship to develop and blossom to their full potential.
India is the seventh largest country in the world by area and has the second largest population, comprising of 1.21 billion people. In 2010-11, there were almost 72,000 higher secondary, 1,28,000 high, 4,48,000 upper primary and 749,000 primary schools in India, giving an overall total of almost 1.4 million schools (plus a further 68,000 pre-primary schools). There were almost 249 million learners in classes 1-12 in 2010-11. The total teacher workforce includes 1.26 million in higher secondary schools, 1.24 million in high schools, 1.89 million in upper primary schools and 2.1 million in primary schools. About 90% of them are trained. Unfortunately, none of them are either trained or given resources to meet the needs of all students.
During the group discussions, many teachers shared about the talents and gifts that their students exhibit in the classrooms. One 6th grade teacher mentioned that a student who did not do well in the classroom test was able to create an outstanding art project explaining a difficult concept that she taught in her class. Unfortunately, she didn’t know how to develop that student’s talent and give him credit for his work. Similarly, many teachers shared that their gifted students have already mastered the content that they were teaching but unfortunately there are no policies or procedures to advance them academically in their school.
According to a researcher, Amita Basu in India there are no culturally appropriate identification or educational protocols in India. The mainstream classroom focuses only on repetitive tasks and rote learning, and gifted children have few opportunities to display their abilities in reasoning, problem solving, and creativity. “In such a situation, they are prone to get bored, leave work incomplete, misbehave, and absent themselves frequently from school. Often, a child with high ability is noticed by teachers only because of his/her behavioral problems.”
Thank you to the Rotary Club of Guindy for identifying this need and giving me an opportunity to share my knowledge about gifted education in the US educational system. I am sure that this is only a beginning and that more workshops will be conducted to make a wonderful global education system. My hope is that educators from all over the world can share their knowledge and expertise with others, developing new skill sets and obtaining the right resources to meet the needs of all of their students.
One key way classroom teachers can broaden their understanding of gifted students is through understanding the cognitive and affective characteristics intellectually gifted children exhibit. These characteristics most commonly appear in general classroom behavior and, therefore, are observable traits. To begin with, Steiner & Carr (2003) discuss six distinct ways gifted learners differ from their average-ability peers.
1. Gifted learners have a broader knowledge base and apply their knowledge.
2. Gifted learners prefer to be challenged.
3. Gifted learners possess faster problem solving skills.
4. Gifted learners efficiently categorize and represent problems compared to average ability learners.
5. They have intricately mastered procedural knowledge, that is knowing how to do something such as knowing the procedure to solve a lengthy algebra problem.
6. Gifted learners possess flexibility in their ability to strategize a solution to a problem.
7. They have superior metacognition and self-regulation skills.
Interestingly, gifted students often possess an intense desire to learn about their own interests. Their ability to think at abstract levels earlier than average-ability peers and form their own ways of thinking about problems and ideas indicates that intellectually gifted students need advanced content and choice in learning activities. That said, gifted students require a wide range of independent projects for differentiating instruction.
This is why an awareness of the social and emotional characteristics of gifted students can further help teachers understand many of the classroom behaviors they observe in gifted children. For example, the student’s desire to share knowledge may be seen by others as an attempt to show off and may lead to peer rejection. Gifted students’ high expectations of themselves and others can lead to perfectionism, personal dissatisfaction, or feelings of hopelessness. Additionally, gifted students routinely exhibit academic and emotional traits that may be described as intense or even extreme, in some cases. They tend to be more curious, demanding, and sensitive than average-ability peers.
In closing, gifted children are supremely unique and require parents and educators to modify home and school environments to meet their strong desire to “know more”. Modifications and accommodations are imperative if gifted students are to reach their full potential.
Steiner, H. H., & Carr, M. (2003). Cognitive development in gifted children: Toward a more precise understanding of emerging differences in intelligence. Educational Psychology Review, 15(3), 215-246.